By Manish Verma, Peter Marwedel
This booklet proposes novel reminiscence hierarchies and software program optimization strategies for the optimum usage of reminiscence hierarchies. It offers a variety of optimizations, gradually expanding within the complexity of research and of reminiscence hierarchies. the ultimate bankruptcy covers optimization strategies for functions together with a number of methods present in most up-to-date embedded devices.
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Extra info for Advanced Memory Optimization Techniques for Low Power Embedded Processors
The processor was synthesized for a standard-cell library by Virtual SiliconTM for the 130 nm 8-layer-metal UMC process using Synopsys Design CompilerTM . 9. 7 mm2 with data memory consuming 73% of the total die size. In our setup, we inserted a small scratchpad memory in between the large data memory and the register file. The scratchpad memory is used to store only data arrays found in the applications. The energy consumption of the entire system could not be computed as the instruction-level energy model for the M5 DSP is currently unavailable.
1 (Trace). e. the execution control flow must be able to reach basic block Bj from basic block Bk without passing through a taken branch instruction. A sequence of basic blocks which satisfies the above definition of a trace, has the following properties: (a) Basic blocks Bi · · · Bj belonging to a trace are sequentially placed in adjacent memory locations. 1 Some researchers disagree on register allocation being classified as an optimization. 24 3 Memory Aware Compilation and Simulation Framework (b) The last instruction of each trace is always an unconditional jump or a return instruction.
0 adpcm dsp Energy (SA) edge detection Exec. Time (Frac. SA) histogram media Exec. Time (SA) mpeg multisort average Fig. 6. Overall Comparison of the Scratchpad Allocation Approaches Next, a comparison of the two scratchpad allocation approaches over all benchmarks is presented. 6 presents the normalized average total energy consumption and 4 Non-Overlayed ScratchpadAllocationApproaches for Main / Scratchpad Memory Hierarchy Total Energy Consumption (mJ) 44 3000 Energy (SA): 1 Compute Processor Energy (SA): 2 Compute Processors 2700 Energy (SA): 3 Compute Processors Energy (SA): 4 Compute Processors 2400 2100 1800 1500 1200 900 600 300 0 0 128 256 512 1024 2048 Scratchpad Size (bytes) 4096 8192 16384 Fig.