Abduction, Reason and Science - Processes of Discovery and by L. Magnani

By L. Magnani

This ebook ties jointly the worries of philosophers of technological know-how and AI researchers, displaying for instance the connections among clinical pondering and medical examiner structures. It lays out an invaluable common framework for dialogue of numerous varieties of abduction. It develops vital principles approximately features of abductive reasoning which were fairly overlooked in cognitive technology, together with using visible and temporal representations and the function of abduction within the withdrawal of hypotheses.

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Let us consider concepts as composite structures akin to frames of the following sort: CONCEPT: A kind of: Subkinds: A part of: Parts: Synonyms: Antonyms: Rules: fustances: It is important to emphasize (1) kind and part-whole relations that institute hierarchies, and (2) rules that express factual information more complex than simple slots. To understand the cases of conceptual revolutions we need to illustrate how concepts can fit together into conceptual systems and what is involved in the replacement of such systems.

Belief revision is able to represent cases of conceptual change such as adding a new instance, adding a new weak rule, adding a new strong 40 Abduction, Reason, and Science rule (see Thagard, 1992), that is, cases of addition and deletion of beliefs, but fails to take into account cases such as adding a new part-relation, adding a new kind-relation, adding a new concept, collapsing part of a kind-hierarchy, reorganizing hierarchies by branch jumping and tree switching, in which there are reorganizations of concepts or redefinitions of the nature of a hierarchy.

Another case is shown by differentiation, that is the making of a new distinction that generates two kinds of things (heat and temperature were considered the same until the Black's intervention). Theoretical Abduction 41 The last three types of conceptual change can be illustrated by the following examples. The Newtonian abandon of the Aristotelian distinction between natural and unnatural motion exemplifies the collapse of part of the kind-hierarchy. Branch jumping occurred when the Copernican revolution involved the recategorization of the earth as a kind of planet, when previously it had been considered special, but also when Darwin reclassified humans as a kind of animal.

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